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IMT 103 Linux Administration M1
1. What is LINUX. Discuss the main features of LINUX. Explain the Linux file system.
2. What is the most significant and real advantage of creating links to a file instead of copies of the
3. Write a command to find all of the files which have been accessed within the last 30 days. Output
should be stored in a file “December.files”.
4. On a Red Hat LINUX Variant how do you control whether a service starts when the system boots.
How do you tell the amount of free disk space left on a volume. Give an example of a recursively
copying a directory from one location to another.
5. What are the various configuration methods of LINUX Kernel? Describe in detail.
1. What is a user interface? What are the two basic kinds of operating system interfaces? What type
of interface does Linux use?
2. Write script called hello, put this script into your startup file called, .bash profile, the script should run
as soon as you logon to system, and it print any one of the following message in infobox using
dialog utility, if installed in your system, If dialog utility is not installed then use echo statement to
print message : –
Good Evening, according to system time.
3. Explain following commands in detail:
4. What is open-source software and how does this affect the Linux operating system?
5. Explain the following:
a) GNOME icons
b) Cron Program
c) Running Lilo
PART – C
6. Explain how would you logout of your root user account and shut down your system.
7. How LINUX prints simple text. Explain lpd and lpr.
8. How would you delete an account with Linuxconf and userdel. Describe the use of Linuxconf to
9. Write a Linux command to find all lines in a file with words longer than 4 letters, assuming that
words are separated by spaces except at the beginning or end of a line.
10. Explain the following:
? Set UID and Set GID programs
? Ownerships and Permissions
Orwell High School, in Felixstowe on the East Coast of England, is a school with some 1,000 students
ranging in age from 11 to 18. The school has just received Specialist School for Technology status
through a Government initiative.
Funding is never easy for schools in the UK public sector and John Osborne, the Deputy Head of the
School responsible for for the Specialist School initiative, found himself faced with a difficult situation.
When John contacted Total Solution Computing Limited to discuss his cabling and server requirements,
Total Solution were able to propose a one-stop solution to Orwell’s requirements, switching to Open
Source for the software systems while simultaneously upgrading the networking infrastructure.
All staff at the school now have laptops, and the school wanted to link these to the network wirelessly.
The school had specific software requirements for the teaching environment, nearly all of which are met
and exceeded by standard Open Source software packages such as OpenOffice.org, MySQL and The
Gimp. These have a huge advantage over their proprietary counterparts because the students can also
run them at home on their PCs without needing to worry about software licensing.
Total Solution proposed a low-cost solution that fully met the objectives of Orwell High School at a
fraction of the cost of the Windows-based proprietary equivalent. The solution has Linux at its core with
a desktop based on KDE kiosk-ised to reduce administrative complexity and cost.
A crucial component of the Linux-based solution was a switch to thin-client workstations accessing
software running on two central application servers. This allowed all of the existing PC hardware to be
re-used without any upgrades. When the PCs boot they no longer use local hard drives, but download
copies of the Linux Terminal Server software from a central server instead. Running that software, they
become clients for the application servers. Instead of spending significant amounts of money on
upgrading the hardware, this has prolonged the life of the workstations by several years at least (and as
a consequence also reduces the load on the local landfill site). Since the workstations no longer need
hard drives, their power consumption and their noise output is noticeably reduced. As discussed later,
the thin-client model also slashes administration effort.
The Linux-based desktop uses a range of standard applications, amongst them OpenOffice.org which
provides word processing, a presentation package and a spreadsheet; all of them are able to to save
and import files in their native XML format whilst retaining compatibility with Microsoft formats. Quanta is
used as the HTML editor, the KDE education package provides an assortment of educational software
components, Scribus is the desktop publishing package and The Gimp is an excellent image
manipulation tool with a wide range of capabilities.
Every student has a personal quota for file space and printer usage. Their personal FTP space is
accessible both inside and outside the school and is used to share their files between home and school.
There is additional shared FTP space administered by staff, used for setting assignments and sharing
background documents. Email is provided to students and staff through Squirrelmail which gives a web
interface very similar to Hotmail or Yahoo mail, this too is visible from home as well as from school. The
shared-calendar features of Squirrelmail are also proving popular.
Overall, the project has been a resounding success. John Osborne said:
“I can’t believe how easy it has been to move to Linux. The systems were installed and working within a
week and it has been a revelation how simple and painless the process has been. I have saved
thousands of pounds per year and got a brand-new ICT infrastructure at the same time.” He added:
“Without switching to Linux, I would have been forced to cut back on our ICT hardware and software
provision. There simply wasn’t the budget to upgrade to the latest versions of the software nor to keep
replacing suites of PCs on a three or four year cycle. Now I have no licensing costs to worry about for
the Open Source parts of the solution. We shall be moving to a complete Open Source basis as quickly
as is practical and hope to start working with other schools interested in this type of development to
share ideas and best practise”.
The students have taken to the new system without any difficulty whatsoever. They much prefer it to the
Windows systems they had been using before, commenting particularly on the reliability of the system
and one observing that he was astonised to discover, having accidentally switched off his workstation
before logging out, that KDE’s session-restore facility returned him back to where he had been
previously when he logged in again.
The administration overhead of the previous Windows-based classrooms had kept the school’s ICT
technician working twelve hours a day. The new system has greatly reduced this workload. John Said
“The significant amount of additional work that will arise as a result of our new status would have made
his job impossible had we remained with our Windows based network, and we would have been looking
to increase our technician staffing to cope. This would have been another significant ongoing cost which
we now feel we can avoid. This funding can now be better spent on developing materials for the staff
and students to use rather than on keeping the network running.”
1. Do you think implementing the low cost solution proposed by “Total solutions” was a success.
2. How selecting the Linux based solution technically helped the Orwell High School.
BFSI has long been among the biggest spenders on IT. Now it’s the turn of India’s leading insurer, Life
Insurance Corporation of India, to join in by upgrading its IT infrastructure. To do this it plans to move to a
complete Linux base not only at the server level but also at the desktop.
Interestingly, all of LIC’s software has been developed in-house at the Software Development Centre (SDC),
starting from its back-end processing systems in the 1970s. In the ‘90s, LIC felt the need to develop a front-end
package, which it named Front End Application Package (FEAP).
The problem started in 2001 when LIC networked its offices and shifted to Red Hat Linux for this. Once the
centres were networked, concurrent requests for customer data began to turn up the heat on its aging systems.
This led the company to re-examine its IT infrastructure. LIC decided to migrate to Red Hat Enterprise Linux .
D K Mehrotra, GM, LIC, explains: “With Unix, it was getting difficult to carry out other projects simultaneously.”
LIC also considered the cost effectiveness of the migration, which would help them migrate their mission-critical
business applications to the new system while the SDC continues to produce 99 percent of the software.
In addition, the company’s primary application, FEAP, was also experiencing problems, which made them look
for a faster operating system, and RHEL helped them in that. Unix, says Mehrotra, limited the number of FEAP
units in use and there was no third party support.
B Venugopal, Chief, Information Technology adds that server emulation was a big problem with Unix whereas
with RHEL, “We can simply convert a PC into a server by connecting terminals.” So, the migration seems to be
a result of both business and technological needs.
LIC wanted to be sure about the vendor they would work with. Thus before finalising they tested both RHEL and
SuSE. The former matched LIC’s requirements for expansion. “RHEL fitted well into the technical roadmap and
IT policy at LIC, and that was the only reason to choose it,” says Venugopal.
All of LIC’s 2,048 branches, 100 divisional offices, seven zonal offices, head office and subsidiary offices will be
covered by the deployment. Along with this all of LIC’s desktops will also simultaneously be converted to Linux.
Approximately 60,000 users and five to six thousand servers will migrate to LINUX.
With such a huge deployment, ensuring that there’s no downtime will be crucial. However, both Venugopal and
Mehrotra are unfazed. They believe that their 100 training centres across the country should ensure that the
project duration does not get extended and the migration is seamless.
As of now, LIC claims to be facing no problems in the migration process. Says Venugopal, “We don’t see any
problems arising in the near future either.” Talking about the existence of a mental block against Linux systems,
Mehrotra says that if LIC had functioned with blocks like that, they would be lagging behind not only in IT
investments but also in the business they run.
The migration, according to Venugopal, will enable LIC to use almost all software and hardware available in the
market. This is important as earlier the organisation was restricted to certain applications due to the proprietary
platform. RHEL has also helped them to use applications such as Micro Focus COBOL, which was difficult on
the earlier Unix systems.
The major benefit according to Venugopal and Mehrotra is the possibility of a larger number of concurrent users
accessing the database.
1. How LIC has benefited by shifting to Red Hat Linux System. Explain in detail.
2. What do you think how the system can be further improved in future.
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