ADL 16 Total Quality Management V2

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ADL 16 Total Quality Management V2
Assignment – A
Question 1. Effective leadership and organization culture are foundations of
Total Quality Management. Discuss.
Question 2. Discuss the approaches of Deming, Juran and Crosby in managing
quality. Compare the similarities and differences in their approach in a tabular
Question 3. What are the quality system requirements of ISO9001: 2000? Explain
the quality principles based on which the quality system is developed.
Question 4. What are quality costs? Explain the different models for
understanding quality costs.
Question 5. Write short notes on:
a) Seven basic tools of problem solving
b) Benchmarking
c) Six Sigma
d) BPR
e) Quality circles


Assignment – B
Question 1. What is Statistical quality control? Explain control charts for
variables and attributes taking suitable examples.
Question 2. A structured approach is beneficial in implementing total quality.
Explain the concept with the help of the model developed by Samuel Ho.
Question 3. Distinguish between
a) Quality and total quality
b) Quality control and Quality assurance
c) Online quality and Off-line quality
d) Kaizen and innovation
e) Adequacy audit and compliance audit


Case Study
Quality Management -Health Care
Founded in 1980 the New Central Hospital (NCH) is a privately owned 580 patient
bed facility in south Delhi. The hospital has 753 employees and provides a broad
range of health care services including emergency rooms; X-ray and laboratory
facilities, maternity wards, intensive and cardiac care units and outpatient
facilities. In 1997 the hospital began a series of advertisements in newspapers
highlighting its capabilities including its doctors, friendliness of its support
staff and its overall philosophy that its employees care about their work and
their patients.
Quality health care is a goal that NCH had long professed. But it had never
developed comprehensive and scientific means of asking customers to judge
quality of care they receive. Past efforts to measure quality at NCH had largely
ignored the perceptions of the customers-the patients, physicians and payers.
Instead of formally considering customer judgments of quality the hospital had
focused almost entirely on internal quality assessments made by the health
professionals who operate the system.
The Board of NCH believed that the hospital needed to make the transformation
from the current practice of attempting to ensure quality to measuring and
improving the quality of care from both external customer perspective and
internal provider perspective. Fueled by concerns in recent years cost and
medical practice variation and by the demand of grater social responsibility,
the hospital found an emerging demand by patients and payers that quality health
care be provided at best value.
The Board of NCH believed that as the prices people pay in the future for given
levels of service became more similar hospitals will be distinguished largely on
the basis of their quality and value assessed by customers. The Board wanted
accurate information about how its customers, not health care professionals
judge the quality of care in the institution.
In February 1997 the hospital administrator Mr. Ravi called a meeting of the
department heads to discuss the issue of quality. He began by asking, “Can we
really deliver on our promises? Or are we in danger of failing to live up to the
level of health care our patients expect, and are we loosing them? Some patients
who leave NCH happy may have actually received poor treatment here. If we are
serious about improving the quality of care we need more valid and reliable data
on which to act. We need answers to specific quality related questions about
activities that affect patients like admission, nursing, medical staff, daily
cases and ancillary staff.
Question 1. Why is it important to get patient’s assessment about health care
quality? Does a patient have the expertise to judge the health care he or she
Question 2. How might a hospital measure quality?
Question 3. How can the value of a human life be included in the cost of quality
Question 4. Select one department in the hospital and elaborate how quality
standards could be developed?
Assignment – C
1. Quality as understood in TQM context means
(a) Fitness for use
(b) Adherence to specification
(c) Zero defect manufacturing
(d) Meeting or exceeding customer needs and expectations
2. Internal customer means
(a) Next operator
(b) Customer within the country
(c) Service provider
(d) Management
3. Non value adding means that
(a) Has incurred least cost to execute
(b) Customer is unwilling to pay
(c) Non essential to organization
(d) None
4. Waste means
(a) Non essential
(b) Non value adding
(c) Not earning profit
(d) Difficult to implement
5. TQM is
(a) A statistical approach to quality
(b) Methods of capturing customer requirements
(c) Integrated approach to customer satisfaction
(d) Ensuring robust design
6. Purpose of existence of a organization is
(a) Vision
(b) Mission
(c) Values
(d) Goals
7. Which of the following is not a philosophy of TQM
(a) Customer focus
(b) Universal responsibility
(c) Inspection for compliance
(d) Continuous improvement
8. Which of the following is not a part of the eight dimensions of quality
(a) Reliability
(b) Durability
(c) Performance
(d) Capability
9. Quality trilogy is the contribution of
(a) Deming
(b) Juran
(c) Crosby
(d) Garvin
10. Which of the following is not a part of the four absolutes of quality as
proposed by Crosby
(a) System of quality is prevention of defects
(b) Performance standard is zero defects
(c) Measurement of quality is cost of nonconformance
(d) Observe zero defects day to improve quality
11. Quality chain reaction is the contribution of
(a) Deming
(b) Juran
(c) Crosby
(d) Garvin
12. PAF model of quality costs is the contribution of
(a) Deming
(b) Juran
(c) Crosby
(d) Garvin
13. Which of the following is the contribution of Taguchi
(a) Quality Loss Function
(b) 80/20 rule
(c) PDCA cycle
(d) Do it right first time
14. Kaizen is the teaching of
(a) Imai
(b) Deming
(c) Ishikawa
(d) Juran
15. Cost incurred on quality audit is
(a) Prevention cost
(b) Internal failure cost
(c) Appraisal cost
(d) External failure cost
16. Warranty claims is
(a) External failure cost
(b) Internal failure cost
(c) Appraisal cost
(d) Prevention cost
17. What is a process
(a) It assures continuous improvement and employee participation
(b) It converts inputs into outputs
(c) Anything that satisfies customers
(d) Anything that causes change
18. Statistical process control is
(a) A technique for finding best settings on machines
(b) A method of ensuring consistent levels of product quality by monitoring
the production process
(c) A way to identify and eliminate potential failure modes in an operation
(d) A means of ensuring that the voice of customer is considered at every
stage of design and production
19. The application of statistical techniques to determine whether a quantity of
material should be accepted or rejected based on the inspection or test of a
sample is known as
(a) Specification review
(b) Acceptance sampling
(c) Statistical process control
(d) Benchmarking
20. To facilitate the identification, exploration and graphical display of
possible causes of an effect we use
(a) Fishbone diagram
(b) Pareto chart
(c) Flow chart
(d) Check sheet
21. The quality tool used to identify the most relevant problem area is
(a) Cause & effect diagram
(b) Pareto analysis
(c) Histogram
(d) Run chart
22. The spread of a process can be easily understood by
(a) Flow chart
(b) Scatter diagram
(c) Ishikawa diagram
(d) Histogram
23. The quality tool used to understand a process is
(a) Check sheet
(b) Flow chart
(c) Histogram
(d) Run chart
24. Which of the following activities must be carried out by someone who has no
direct responsibility for the work being carried out
(a) Contract review
(b) Inspection of a product
(c) Audit
(d) Training
25. Information, which can be proved true, based on facts obtained through
observation, measurement or test is called
(a) Objective evidence
(b) Deficiency
(c) Non conformity report
(d) Validation report
26. A third party audit is
(a) An internal audit
(b) An audit by the customer
(c) An audit by an independent organization
(d) An audit by the buyer
27. Surveillance audit is carried out by
(a) Internal auditor
(b) Statutory auditor
(c) Certifying body
(d) Customer
28. A tool which addresses potential countermeasures is
(a) PDPC
(b) Interrelationship graph
(c) Arrow diagram
(d) affinity diagram
29. Samuel Ho is famous for
(a) PDCA cycle
(b) BPR
(c) TQMEX model
(d) Benchmarking
30. Which of the following is not a pillar of the TQMEX model
(a) Satisfying customers
(b) Improvement tools
(c) System/Process
(d) Top Management
31. EPDCA cycle means
(a) Excellence, Plan, Do, Check, Act
(b) Evaluate, Plan Do, Check, Amend
(c) Evolve, Plan, Do, Check, Act
(d) Edit, Plan, Do, Check, Amend
32. The objectives of Quality council are
(a) Provide strategic direction on TQM for the organization
(b) Set up and review the process quality teams that own the key critical
(c) Review and revise quality plans for implementation
(d) All of the above
33. Appraisal costs are associated with
(a) Quality audits
(b) Re-work
(c) Calibration & maintenance of equipment
(d) Complaints
34. SPC is a tool kit that can answer which of the following questions
(a) Are we capable of doing the job correctly?
(b) Do we continue to do the job correctly?
(c) Have we done the job correctly?
(d) All of the above
35. A process is under control if
(a) The output is within specifications
(b) Variability due to assignable cause is eliminated
(c) Variability due to random causes is eliminated
(d) Machines are put under TPM
True or False
36. The purpose of quality manual is to state particularly for the benefit of
assessor’s that how the requirements of ISO9000 are met in the company’s quality
(a) True
(b) False
37. Total quality management is far more than shifting the responsibility of
detection of problems from the customer to producer
(a) True
(b) False
38. Special process requires pre-qualification of the process capability
(a) True
(b) False
39. TQM is all about producing best quality of products
(a) True
(b) False
40. Design for six sigma (DFSS) is used for an existing product
(a) True b) False

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